Sergey Fokin. Maurice Blanchot and the chronic antisemitism of French literature. Review. Vol. 3. No. 2. 2018

Publication Details

Maurice Blanchot and the chronic antisemitism of French literature. Review of the books: Lignes. Les Politiques de Maurice Blanchot. 1930–1993. Nr. 43. Mars 2014. 235 р.; Nancy J.-L. La communauté desavouée. Paris: Galilée, 2014. 176 p.; Surya M. L’Autre Blanchot. L’Ecriture de jour, l’écriture de nuit. Paris: Gallimard, 2015 (coll. “Tel”). 168 p.; Monvailler H. de., Rousseau N. Blanchot l’obscur ou La Déraison littéraire. Préface de M. Onfray. Paris: Autrement, 2015 (coll. “Université populaires & Cie”). 252 р.
Title in the language of publication: Морис Бланшо и хронический антисемитизм французской словесности. Рецензия на книги: Lignes. Les Politiques de Maurice Blanchot. 1930–1993. Nr. 43. Mars 2014. 235 р.; Nancy J.-L. La communauté desavouée. Paris: Galilée, 2014. 176 p.; Surya M. L’Autre Blanchot. L’Ecriture de jour, l’écriture de nuit. Paris: Gallimard, 2015 (coll. “Tel”). 168 p.; Monvailler H. de., Rousseau N. Blanchot l’obscur ou La Déraison littéraire. Préface de M. Onfray. Paris: Autrement, 2015 (coll. “Université populaires & Cie”). 252 р.
Author:
Sergey Fokin
Doctor of Philology, Head of the Department of Romance Languages and Translation of the St. Petersburg State University of Economics, Professor of the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences of St. Petersburg State University.
Address: 21 Sadovaya street, St. Petersburg 191023, Russia.
Issue:
P. 443–464.
Language: Russian
Document type: Review
 
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© Sergey Fokin, 2018

Basil Lourié. Philosophy of Dionysius the Areopagite. Theory of meaning. Vol. 3. No. 2. 2018

Publication Details

Philosophy of Dionysius the Areopagite. Theory of meaning
Title in the language of publication: Философия Дионисия Ареопагита: Теория значения
Author:
Basil Lourié
Doctor of Philosophy, Professor at the Institute of the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Campus in Perm.
Address: 38 Studencheskaya Ulitsa, Perm 614070, Russia.
Issue:
P. 387–440.
Language: Russian
Document type: Research Article
 
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Abstract

The paper presents an outline of the treatment of semantic issues in Patristics, especially in Dionysius the Areopagite and Basil of Caesarea. The main problem, namely, that of naming God who remains unnameable, is approached from a non-theological formal semantic viewpoint and against the background of different twentieth-century-semantic theories as well as author’s own understanding of the indirect meanings. Moreover, are taken into account those quantum logics whose purpose is a formalisation of the Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum theory (given that some of them were developed under an impact of 1960s theories in semantics of natural language). As one could expect, the formal semantic implied in the theology of Dionysius the Areopagite and Basil of Caesarea does not coincide with any of the semantic theories available in modern scholarship, even though has something in common with some of them. Generally speaking, the formal semantic implied in theology of our patristic authors presupposes an intesionality which is not reducible to extensionality. In this respect, theology is similar to poetry. However, unlike poetry, the formal semantic of patristic theology is undetachable from a kind of “existential export”, that is, some ontology. Non-reducibility of intensionality results from inconsistency — quite explicit as it as — of the main notions applied to God (which implies all kinds of contradictions, that is, subcontrary, contradictory, and contrary — whereas the latter are almost not dealt with in the article). The article focuses on posing questions and looking for general directions where the answers are to be found, but the answers themselves are to be discussed elsewhere.

Keywords

Dionysius the Areopagite, semantics, intensionality, paraconsistent logic, dialethism, divine names, designation.

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© Basil Lourié, 2018

Olena Syrtsova. The Apocalypse of Theotokos and the question of the merciful eschatology in II–V centuries. Vol. 3. No. 2. 2018

Publication Details

The Apocalypse of Theotokos and the question of the merciful eschatology in II–V centuries
Title in the language of publication: Апокалипсис Богородицы и вопрос о милосердной эсхатологии во II–V веках.
Author:
Olena Syrtsova
PhD in Philosophy, Senior Research Fellow at the Skovoroda Institute of Philosophy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Address: 4 Treuchsviatitelskaia, Kyiv 01001, Ukraine.
Issue:
P. 358–386.
Language: Russian
Document type: Research Article
 
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Abstract

The collation of the oldest manuscripts of the Apocalypse of Theotokos with the content of the Apocalypse of Peter, the Apocalypse of Paul, the oldest versions of the Dormition of Theotokos, the Book of Henoch (II), the Apocalypse of Esdra and other apocryphal texts allows to reconsider the traditional views on the comparatively late origin of the Apocalypse of Theotokos: it should not be excluded that it appeared in the III–IV centuries, and the significantly more reserved, if not polemical position of the author of both first and second redactions of the Apocalypse of Paul relatively to the idea of the final complete abolition of the everlasting punishments comparably to the Apocalypse of Peter and the Apocalypse of Theotokos should be estimated as well. The ideas of a possibility for the final mercy for the damned sinners reflected in these earlier Apocalypses are considered as coherent in moral and anagogical senses with the conception of apocatastasis of the hope of Clement of Alexandria and the idea of the total apocatastasis of Origen and Gregory of Nyssa. Тhe testimony of Augustin about many variants (besides the Origenian one), in which the idea of the impossibility of everlasting tortures for the sinners and admission of the temporary interruption and even final abolition of the punishments was spread during the III–IV centuries, attests not only the then existence of the representations about the possibility of temporary relief for the damned, which find their echo in the apocryphal Apocalypse of Paul, but also of the Christian belief that all the damned could be finally saved due to the prayers of the saints, which was expressed in the Apocalypse of Peter and especially in the ekteneia of the Mother of God іn thе Нell, described in the Apocalypse of Theotokos. The main idea of the Greek, few Slavonic and one Georgian versions has just constituted the perspective of the final interruption of sufferings in the other world.

Keywords

Apocalypse of Peter, Apocalypse of Paul, Apocalypse of Theotokos, Origen, Clement of Alexandria, Gregory of Nyssa, eschatology.

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© Olena Syrtsova, 2018

Maria Varlamova. Correlation of universal properties and nature of being in Alexander of Aphrodisias. Vol. 3. No. 2. 2018

Publication Details

Correlation of universal properties and nature of being in Alexander of Aphrodisias
Title in the language of publication: О соотношении кафолических свойств и природы сущего у Александра Афродисийского
Author:
Maria Varlamova
PhD in Philosophy, Research Fellow at the Research and Education Center for Religion, Philosophy, and Culture Studies at St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Associate Research Fellow at the Sociological institute of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Address: 67A Bolshaya Morskaia str., Saint-Petersburg, 190000, Russia.
Issue:
P. 347–357.
Language: Russian
Document type: Research Article
Acknowledgments:  The present study is a part of the project № 16-03-00047, “The followers of John Duns Scotus in the XIVth–XVIth centuries Scholasticism: Problems of Epistemology and Metaphysics”, implemented with a financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.
 
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Abstract

The subject of the present article is the problem of katholou (universals) in the metaphysics of Alexander of Aphrodisias and the correlation of universals, particular things and common nature, on the basis of which universals is predicated to the things. In the article, the problem of the definition of soul in comparison with the definition of animal as a common genus, which Alexander considers in the quaestio 1.11 of “Quaestiones”, is examined. Alexander distinguishes the universlity of the genus, which is predicated to the nature identical in each being belonging to this genus, and the universality of the soul. He affirms that, although the soul is not a genus, predication of soul to the different souls is not homonymic, but is grounded on the unity of nature. In this case the common nature resides in different things not equally but diversely, and the correlation of universals and particulars is specified by Alexander as a relation of prior to posterior or as predication pros hen. By that, universals is attached to the nature of the thing as something posterior. The structure of universal predication, described in the quaestio 1.11, corresponds with the problem of predication of the being and the one in many ways in the commentary on the book IV of Aristotle’s “Metaphysics”. The being and the one as the per se accidents of being are predicated in many ways pros hen, and this hen is the one substrate or one essence. However, the unity and the being as the most universal is predicated to particular thing non-homonymically not on the basis of the unity of this thing, but on the basis of the unity of essence as the nature of being.

Keywords

Metaphysics, Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, katholou, essence, nature, the one.

References 

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Varlamova M. (2017) “On the Unity of the Being as the Object of the First Science in the Commentary of Alexander of Aphrodisias on the Metaphysics of Aristotle”. Esse: Filosofskie i teologicheskie issledovaniya. T. 2. № 1/2 [ESSE: Studies in Philosophy and Theology. Vol. 2. No. 1/2]: 289–305. (in Russian).

© Maria Varlamova, 2018

Thomas Compton Carleton. Philosophia universa. Logica. Disputatio XIII. De Ente Rationis. Vol. 3. № 2. 2018

Publication Details

Philosophia universa. Logica. Disputatio XIII. De Ente Rationis
Title in the language of publication: Всеобщая философия Логика Диспутация XIII О ментальном сущем
Author: Thomas Compton Carleton
Translated from Latin and notes:
Galina Vdovina
Doctor of Philosophy, Leading Research Fellow at the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Address: 12/1 Goncharnaya Str., Moscow 109240, Russia.
Issue:
P. 326–344.
Language: Russian
Document type: Translation and notes
Acknowledgments:  The present study is a part of the project No. 18-011-00162, “Ens rationis: Non-existent objects, mental fictions and negations in the logical and metaphysical discourse of the 17th century scholasticism”, implemented with a financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.
 
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 References to footnotes

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Compton Carleton Th. (1649) Philosophia universa. Antverpiae: Apud Iacovum Mevrsium.

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© Galina Vdovina, transl. and notes, 2018

Galina Vdovina. Thomas Compton Carleton and mental fictions. Vol. 3. No. 2. 2018

Publication Details

Thomas Compton Carleton and mental fictions
Title in the language of publication: Томас Комптон Карлтон и ментальные фикции
Author:
Galina Vdovina
Doctor of Philosophy, Leading Research Fellow at the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Address: 12/1 Goncharnaya Str., Moscow 109240, Russia.
Issue:
P. 291–325.
Language: Russian
Document type: Research Article (introdaction)
Acknowledgments:  The present study is a part of the project No. 18-011-00162, “Ens rationis: Non-existent objects, mental fictions and negations in the logical and metaphysical discourse of the 17th century scholasticism”, implemented with a financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.
 
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Abstract

The article deals with the conception of mental being (ens rationis) proposed by the 17th century Jesuit philosopher Thomas Compton Carleton. The mental being, as opposed to the real being, is one of the cross-cutting themes of European philosophy. In the period of high and late scholasticism, it occupied a prominent place in the semantic, ontological and epistemological discourse. There was no absolutely unified and universally recognized concept of ens rationis in scholasticism, and at different times different authors put different content into this term. Compton Carleton explores the subject of mental existence, following four Aristotelian questions: “does it exist?”, “what is it?”, “what is it like?”, “what are the reasons for it?” Compton is convinced that the mental being “exists” as an impossible thing that cannot be reduced to any kind of real or possible being. To the question “what is it?” Compton answers that ens rationis in the most intrinsic sense is a chimerical being that exists only through an act of intelligence that produces it by thinking it. The very “essence” of the mental being is the impossible connection between the parts of the chimera, which makes impossible also its parts, which, when taken separately, are real. Finally, in response to the question about the producing cause of the mental being, Compton answers that it is produced either by intellectual acts only (simple apprehension and judgments) or by acts of intellect combined with acts of imagination. The ens rationis conception proposed by Compton Cartlon is one of the most developed and authoritative theories of mental being in post-medieval scholasticism. As an appendix to the article, a translated excerpt from the first edition of Thomas Compton Carleton’s course “Universal Philosophy” is published (Compton Carleton Th. Philosophia universa. Antverpiae: Apud Iacovum Mevrsium, 1649. P. 65–70).

Keywords

Thomas Compton Carlton, ens rationis, mental being, chimera, impossible being, connection between chimera parts, scholasticism, intellectual act, simple apprehension, judgment.

References 

Aristoteles (1978) “Analytica Posteriora”. Aristoteles. Soch.: v 4-kh t. T. 2 [Works in 4 vol. Vol. 2]. Moscow: Mysl’ (Filosofskoe nasledie. T. 76 [Philosophical Heritage. Vol. 76]): 255–346. (in Russian).

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Compton Carleton Th. (1649) Philosophia universa. Antverpiae: Apud Iacovum Mevrsium.

Doyle J. P. (1995) “Another God, Chimerae, Goat-Stags, and Man-Lions: A Seventeenth-Century Debate about Impossible Objects”. The Review of Metaphysics. Vol. 48. No. 4: 771–808.

Embry B. (2015) “An Early Modern Scholastic Theory of Negative Entities: Thomas Compton Carleton on Lacks, Negations, and Privations”. British Journal for the History of Philosophy. Vol. 23. Issue 1: 22–45.

Hurtado de Mendoza P. (1624) Universa philosophia in unum corpus redacta. Lugduni: Sumptibus Ludovici Prost. Haeredis Roville.

Ioannes Duns Scotus OFM (2015) “Ordinatsiya. Kniga I. Distinktsiya 43 i parallel’nye teksty” [Ordinatio. Book I. Distinction 43 and parallel texts] (tr., notes by V. L. Ivanov). Mnogolikaya sofistika: Nelegitimnaya argumentatsiya v intellektual’noi kul’ture Evropy Srednikh vekov i rannego Novogo vremeni [The Many-faced Sophistic: The Illegitimate argumentation in the European intellectual culture of the Middle Ages and Early Modern time] (ed. by P. V. Sokolov). Moscow: HSE Publishing House: 26–57. (in Russian).

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© Galina Vdovina 2018

Vitaliy Ivanov. Duns Scotus and the Scotists about identity and difference: On the history of two metaphysical concepts in Scholastic-Aristotelian philosophy. Vol. 3. No. 2. 2018

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Ioannes Duns Scotus, OFM. Quaestiones Quodlibetales. Quaestio V: Utrum relatio originis sit formaliter infinita. Vol. 3. No. 2. 2018

Publication Details

Quaestiones Quodlibetales. Quaestio V: Utrum relatio originis sit formaliter infinita
Title in the language of publication: Какие угодно вопросы. Вопрос V. Есть ли отношение происхождения [в божественном] формально бесконечное
Author: Ioannes Duns Scotus, OFM
Translated from Latin and notes: 
Vitaliy Ivanov
Research Fellow at the Research and Education Center for Religion, Philosophy, and Culture Studies at St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Associate Research Fellow at the Sociological institute of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Address: 67A Bolshaya Morskaia str., Saint-Petersburg, 190000, Russia.
Issue:
P. 226–254.
Language: Russian
Document type: Translation and notes
 
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© Vitaliy Ivanov, transl., notes, 2018