Ioannes Duns Scotus, OFM. Texts about the formal distinction. Lectura. Lib. I, dist. 2, p. 2, q. 1. Ordinatio. Lib. I, dist. 2, p. 2, q. 1. Reportatio I-A, dist. 33, q. 1. Reportatio I-A, dist. 33, q. 2. Vol. 1. No. 2. 2016

Publication Details

Texts about the formal distinction. Lectura.  Lib. I, dist. 2, p. 2, q. 1. Ordinatio. Lib. I, dist. 2, p. 2, q. 1. Reportatio I-A, dist. 33, q. 1. Reportatio I-A, dist. 33, q. 2.
Title in the language of publication:
Тексты о формальной дистинкции
Lectura. Книга I, дистинкция 2, часть 2, вопрос 1: Coвозможно ли бытие множества Лиц с единством сущности?
Ординация I. Дистинкция 2, часть 2, вопрос 1: Coвозможно ли бытие множества Лиц с единством сущности?
Репортация I-A. Дистинкция 33, вопрос 1: Является ли личное свойство в божественном сущностью?
Репортация I-A. Дистинкция 33, вопрос 2: Противоборствует ли простоте божественного Лица какая бы то ни было реальная дистинкция между конституирующими Лицо существенностями?
Author: Ioannes Duns Scotus, OFM
Translated from the Latin: 
Vitaliy Ivanov
Research Fellow at the Research and Education Center for Religion, Philosophy, and Culture Studies at St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation.
Address: 67 Bolshaya Morskaia str., Saint-Petersburg, 190000, Russia.
Issue:
P. 201–262.
Language: Russian
Document type: Research Article (translation)
HTML
 
   PDF

© Vitaliy Ivanov, transl., comment. 2016

Vitaliy Ivanov. At the origin of the Formalist Metaphysics of distinctions: the theological purpose of introduction of distinctio formalis in the work of John Duns Scotus, OFM Vol. 1. No. 2. 2016.

Publication Details

At the origin of the Formalist Metaphysics of distinctions: the theological purpose of introduction of distinctio formalis in the work of John Duns Scotus, OFM
Title in the language of publication: У истоков формалистской метафизики дистинкций: теологические цели введения формальной дистинкции в трудах Иоанна Дунса Скота, ОМБ. Предисловие к публикации
Author:
Vitaliy Ivanov
Research Fellow at the Research and Education Center for Religion, Philosophy, and Culture Studies at St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation.
Address: 67 Bolshaya Morskaia str., Saint-Petersburg, 190000, Russia.
Issue:
P. 185–200.
Language: Russian
Document type: Research Article (translation)
HTML
 
   PDF

Abstract

This article is an analytical and historiographical introduction to the publication of a Russian translation of the texts by the Franciscan theologian and metaphysician John Duns Scotus, dedicated to the concept of formal distinction or formal non-identity. The article shows that discussion of trinitarian problems took the most important place in the Scholastic theology of the High Scholasticism, and demonstrates that the main motive and purpose of introducing the concept of “formal distinction” by Duns Scotus and of the development of the doctrine of distinctions in general was an attempt to resolve the “great difficulty” of Trinitarian theology that reads, in Scotus’s formulation: how is it possible that in one really identical Person in the Trinity, insofar as it is identical with the communicated divine essence, inhere a predicate of communicability, and at once, insofar as it is an uncommunicated (to the other Persons) suppositum, i. e. since it is constituted by its own personal property (fatherhood, sonship, etc.), inhere a predicate of incommunicability, i.e. the contradictory predicates? It seems that this violates the first principle of any (including theological) knowledge. According to Scotus, only the assumption of a distinction between a personal property and an essence in a divine Person is capable of providing a possibility of a consistent understanding of the main article of Christian doctrine — the compatibility of the unity and indivisibility of the divine essence and of the multitude of three Persons really different from each other. Moreover Scotus insists that this distinction should be inherent in the Person “ex natura rei”, i. e. not only be the product of an act of human or even divine intellectus. Further, the article shows the importance of Scotus’s formal distinction for the subsequent scholastic theology: a fierce discussion about this concept and its applicability in theology both in the ranks of Scotus’s opponents and among his followers has led to the outcome that the theme of distinctions and identities has become one of the most important in scholastic theology, metaphysics and epistemology. In addition, we single out and characterize the four main argumentative and thematic contexts of Scotus’s use of the concept of “formal distinction” in his works: trinitarian, the context of attribute theology, the constitution of the finite being, and the general metaphysical context. Finally, the article describes the main discussion in the modern studies of Scotus’s doctrine of formal distinction — concerning the degree of reality inherent to the formal distinction, and also gives short assessment regarding the main topic of this discussion and validity of the positions taken by its main participants.

Keywords

Trinitarian theology, High Scholasticism, Duns Scotus, the doctrine of formal distinction, discussion concerning the “realism” of Scotus.

References 

Primary source editions

Anselmus Cantuariensis (1863) “De Divinitatis Essentia Monologium”. Patrologia cursus completus. Series Latina (ed. J.-P. Migne). T. 158. Parisiis: Excudebatur et venit apud J.-P. Migne editorem: 141–224.

Aristoteles (1552) Aristotelis Opera cum Averrois commentariis. Vol. I. Aristotelis Stagiritae organum, quod logicam appelant, cum Averrois Cordubensis variis commentariis, epitome, quaesitis, ac epistola una. Hic accesserunt Levi Ghersonides in nonnullos Aristotelis et Averrois libros annotationes et quorundam Arabum quaesita et epistola. Venetiis: Apud Junctas (Editio Juntina prima).

Aristoteles (1562) Aristotelis Opera cum Averrois commentariis. Vol. VIII. Aristotelis Metaphysicorum libri XIIII cum Averrois Cordubensis in eosdem commentariis et epitome, Theophrasti metaphysicorum liber. Venetiis: Apud Junctas (Editio Juntina secunda).

Aristoteles (1831) Aristotelis opera. Vol. 1–2. Aristoteles Graece (ed. Imm. Bekker). Ed. Academia Regia Borussica. Berolini: Apud Georgium Reimerum.

Aurelius Augustinus (1864) “De Civitate Dei libri XXII”. Patrologia cursus completusSeries Latina (ed. J.-P. Migne). T. 41. Parisiis: Excudebatur et venit apud J.-P. Migne editorem: 13–804.

Aurelius Augustinus (1865a) “De diversis Quaestionibus octoginta tribus liber unus”. Patrologia cursus completusSeries Latina (ed. J.-P. Migne). T. 40. Parisiis: Excudebatur et venit apud J.-P. Migne editorem: 11–100.

Aurelius Augustinus (1865b) “De Trinitate libri XV”. Patrologia cursus completusSeries Latina (ed. J.-P. Migne). T. 42. Parisiis: Excudebatur et venit apud J.-P. Migne editorem: 819–1098.

Avicenna (1977) Avicenna LatinusLiber de philosophia prima sive scientia divina. Vol. 1 (libri I–IV) (édition critique de la trad. latine médiévale par S. Van Riet, intr. doctrinale par G. Verbeke). Louvain: Peeters; Leiden: Brill.

Avicenna (1980) Avicenna LatinusLiber de philosophia prima sive scientia divina. Vol. 2 (libri V–X) (édition critique de la trad. latine médiévale par S. Van Riet, intr. doctrinale par G. Verbeke). Louvain: Peeters; Leiden: Brill.

Bonaventura OFM (1882) S. Bonaventurae Opera omnia. Ed. studio et cura PP. Collegii a S. Bonaventura. T. I. Commentaria in IV libros Sententiarum. In Primum librum Sententiarum. Ad claras Aquas: Ex typographia Collegii S. Bonaventurae.

Decretales Gregorii IX (1881) “Decretalium Gregorii papae IX compilationis libri V”. Corpus Iuris Canonici. Pars 2: Decretalium Collectiones (ed. E. L. Richter et E. Friedberg). Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz: 1–928.

Duns Scotus OFM (1950–2013) “Ioannis Duns Scoti OFM Ordinatio I–IV”. Ioannis Duns Scoti Opera omnia. Vol. I–XIV. Studio et cura Commissionis Scotisticae ad fidem codicum edita, praeside Carolo Balić. Civitas Vaticana: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis.

Duns Scotus OFM (1960–2004) “Ioannis Duns Scoti OFM Lectura I–III”. Ioannis Duns Scoti Opera omnia. Vol. XVI–XXI. Studio et cura Commissionis Scotisticae ad fidem codicum edita, praeside Carolo Balić. Civitas Vaticana: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis.

Duns Scotus OFM (1968) Ioannis Duns Scoti Quaestiones Quodlibetales. — Juan Duns Escoto. Cuestiones Cuodlibetales (ed. bilingüe, intr., resúmenes y versión de F. Alluntis). Madrid: La Editorial Católica (Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos. Vol. 277).

Duns Scotus OFM (1994) Tractatus de primo principio. — Abhandlung über das erste Prinzip (hg., übers. v. W. Kluxen). 3. Aufl. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft (Texte zur Forschung).

Duns Scotus OFM (1997a) “Quaestiones super libros Metaphysicorum Aristotelis. Libri I–V” (ed. a G. Etzkorn, R. Andrews, G. Gál, R. Green, F. Kelly, G. Marcil, T. Noone, R. Wood). B. Ioannis Duns Scoti OFM Opera Philosophica. Vol. III. St. Bonaventure, New York: The Franciscan Institute.

Duns Scotus OFM (1997b) “Quaestiones super libros Metaphysicorum Aristotelis. Libri VI–IX” (ed. a G. Etzkorn, R. Andrews, G. Gál, R. Green, F. Kelly, G. Marcil, T. Noone, R. Wood). B. Ioannis Duns Scoti OFM Opera Philosophica. Vol. IV. St. Bonaventure, New York: The Franciscan Institute.

Duns Scotus OFM (2004a) The Examined Report of the Paris Lecture: Reportatio I–A. Latin Text and English Translation (tr., ed. by A. B. Wolter, O. V. Bychkov). Vol. 1: Prologus, dist. 1–21. St. Bonaventure, New York: Franciscan Institute.

Duns Scotus OFM (2004b) “Theoremata” (ed. a M. Dreyer, H. Möhle, G. Krieger). B. Ioannis Duns Scoti OFM Opera Philosophica. Vol. II. St. Bonaventure, New York: Franciscan Institute; Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press: 593–721.

Duns Scotus OFM (2006) “Quaestiones super secundum et tertium De anima” (ed . a C. Bazán, K. Emery, R. Green, T. Noone, R. Plevano, A. Traver). B. Ioannis Duns Scoti OFM Opera Philosophica. Vol. V. Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press; St. Bonaventure, New York: Franciscan Institute.

Duns Scotus OFM (2008) The Examined Report of the Paris Lecture: Reportatio I–A. Latin Text and English Translation (tr., ed. by A. B. Wolter, O. V. Bychkov). Vol. 2: dist. 22–48. St. Bonaventure, New York: Franciscan Institute.

Duns Scotus OFM (2014) “Ioannis Duns Scoti Quaestio de formalitatibus quae dicitur Logica Scoti”. The Quaestio de formalitatibus by John Duns Scotus, sometimes called the Logica Scoti (ed. by K. Jr. Emery, G. R. Smith). Bulletin de philosophie médiévale. Vol. 56: 153–182.

Duns Scotus OFM (2015) “Ordinatsiya. Kniga I. Distinktsiya 43 i parallel’nye teksty” [Ordinatio. Book I. Distinction 43 and parallel texts] (tr., notes by V. L. Ivanov). Mnogolikaya sofistika: Nelegitimnaya argumentatsiya v intellektual’noi kul’ture Evropy Srednikh vekov i rannego Novogo vremeni [The Many-faced Sophistic: The Illegitimate argumentation in the European intellectual culture of the Middle Ages and Early Modern time] (ed. by P. V. Sokolov). Moscow: HSE Publishing House: 26–57. (in Russian).

Euclides (1983) The First Latin Translation of Euclid’s Elements Commonly Ascribed to Adelard of Bath. A critical edition of books I–VIII and books X.36–XV.2 (ed. by H. L. L. Busard). Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies (Studies and Texts. Vol. 64).

Franciscus de Mayronis (1961) François de Meyronnes — Pierre Roger. Disputatio (1320–1321) (éd. critique par J. Barbet). Paris: Vrin (Textes philosophiques du Moyen Âge. Vol. 9).

Godefridus de Fontibus (1904) Godefridi de Fontibus. Les quatre premiers Quodlibets (éd. par M. De Wulf, A. Pelzer). Louvain: Institut Supérieur de Philosophie de l’Université.

Henricus a Gandavo (1518) Quodlibeta Magistri Henrici Goethals a Gandavo. Parisii: In aedibus Iodoci Badii Ascensii.

Henricus a Gandavo (1520) Henrici a Gandavo Summa quaestionum ordinarium. Tomi II. Parisii: In aedibus Iodoci Badii Ascensii.

Henricus de Gandavo (1987) Henrici de Gandavo Opera omnia. T. XVI. Quodlibet XII. Quaestiones 1–30 (ed. a G. A. Wilson, J. Decorte). Leuven: Leuven University Press.

Henricus de Gandavo (2011) Henrici de Gandavo Opera omnia. T. VIII. Quodlibet IV (ed. a G. A. Wilson G. Etzkorn). Leuven: Leuven University Press.

Hervaeus Natalis OP (2011) De quattuor materiis sive Determinationes contra magistrum Henricum de Gandavo. Vol. I: Tractatus de formis. De unitate formae substantialis in eodem supposito. A critical Edition from Selected Manuscripts (ed. by L. M. De Rijk). Turnhout: Brepols Publishers (Studia Artistarum. Vol. 31).

Iohannes Damascenus (1864) “Expositio Fidei Orthodoxae”. Patrologia cursus completus. Series Graeca (ed. J.-P. Migne). T. 94. Parisiis: Excudebatur et venit apud J.-P. Migne editorem: 789–1228.

Petrus Hispanus (1972) Peter of Spain (Petrus Hispanus). Tractatus, (also known as Summulae logicales) (critical ed., intr. by L.M. de Rijk). Assen: Van Gorcum & Co.

Petrus Lombardus (1855) “Sententiarum Libri Quatuor. Patrologia cursus completusSeries Latina (ed. J.-P. Migne). T. 192. Parisiis: Apud Garnier Fratres, Editores et J.-P. Migne Successores: 519–964.

Petrus Thomae OFM (2000) “Petrus Thomae’s De Distinctione Predicamentorum (With A Working Edition)” (ed. E. P. Bos). The Winged Chariot: Collected Essays on Plato and Platonism in Honor of L. M. de Rijk (ed. by M. Kardaun, J. Spruyt). Leiden; Boston; Köln: Brill (Brill’s Studies in Intellectual History. Vol. 100): 277–312.

Richardus de Sancto Victore (1855) “De Trinitate”. Patrologia cursus completus. Series Latina (ed. J.-P. Migne). T. 196. Parisiis: Excudebatur et venit apud J.-P. Migne editorem: 887–992.

Suárez SJ (1960–1966) Francisco Suárez SJ Disputationes Metaphysicae — Disputaciones metafísicas. Vol. I–VII (ed., tr. S. Rábade Romeo, S. Caballero Sánchez, A. Puigcerver Zanón). Madrid: Gredos.

Thomas Aquinas OP (1888) Sancti Thomae de Aquino OP Opera omnia (editio Leonina). Tomus IV. Summae Theologiae, Pars I, a quaestione I ad quaestionem XLIX. Romae: Ex Typographia Polyglotta S. C. de Propaganda Fide.

Thomas Aquinas OP (1889) Sancti Thomae de Aquino OP Opera omnia (editio Leonina). Tomus V. Summae Theologiae, Pars I, a quaestione L ad quaestionem CXIX. Romae: Ex Typographia Polyglotta S. C. de Propaganda Fide.

Thomas Aquinas OP (1996) Sancti Thomae de Aquino OP Opera omnia (editio Leonina). Tomus XXIV. Pars 1. Quaestiones disputatae de anima (ed. B. C. Bazán). Roma: Commissio Leonina; Paris: Éditions du Cerf.

Thomas Aquinas OP (2000) Sancti Thomae de Aquino OP Opera omnia (editio Leonina). Tomus XXIV. Pars 2. Quaestio disputata de spiritualibus creaturis (ed. J. Cos). Roma: Commissio Leonina; Paris: Éditions du Cerf.

Studies and reference literature

Adams McCord M. (1976) “Ockham on Identity and Distinction”. Franciscan Studies. Vol. 36: 5–74.

Bäck A. (2000) “The Formal Structure of Scotus’ Formal Distinction”. Medieval and Renaissance Logic in Spain: Acts of the 12th European Symposium on Medieval Logic and Semantics, held at the University of Navarre (Pamplona, 26–30 May 1997) (ed. by I. Angelelli, P. Perez-Ilzarbe). Hildesheim; Zürich; New York: Georg Olms Verlag (Philosophische Texte und Studien. Bd. 54): 411–438.

Blander J. (2014) Dependence, Separability, and Theories of Identity and Distinction in Late Medieval Philosophy: Case Studies from Scotus and Ockham (PhD dissertation. Los Angeles. University of California).

Borak H. (1966) “De fundamento distinctionis formalis scotisticae”. Laurentianum. Vol. 6: 157–181.

Connors C. (2009) “Scotus and Ockham: Individuation and the Formal Distinction”. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association. Vol. 83: 141–153.

Conti A. D. (1993) “Sviluppi e applicazioni della distinzione formale scotista ad Oxford sul finire del XIV secolo”. Via Scoti: Methodologia ad mentem Joannis Duns Scoti. Atti del Congresso Scotistico Internazionale Roma 9–11 marzo 1993 (a cura di L. Sileo). T. 1. Rome: Edizioni Antonianum: 319–336.

Cross R. (2004) “Scotus’s Parisian Teaching on Divine Simplicity”. Duns Scot à Paris, 1302–2002. Actes du colloque de Paris, 2–4 septembre 2002 (éd. par O. Boulnois, E. Karger, J.-L. Solère, G. Sondag). Turnhout: Brepols Publishers (Textes et études du Moyen Âge. Vol. 26): 519–562.

Dumont S. D. (2005) “Duns Scotus’s Parisian Question on the Formal Distinction”. Vivarium. Vol. 43. Issue 1: 7–62.

Friedman R. (2010) Medieval Trinitarian Thought from Aquinas to Ockham. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Friedman R. (2013) Intellectual Traditions at the Medieval University: The Use of Philosophical Psychology in Trinitarian Theology among the Franciscans and Dominicans, 1250–1350. 2 vols. Leiden: Brill (Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters. Bd. 108. Teil. 1–2).

Fuchs M. J. (2014) “Univozität und Distinktion. Metaphysische Grundstrukturen bei Duns Scotus, Suárez, Descartes und Spinoza”. Suárez’s Metaphysics in Its Historical and Systematic Context (ed. by L. Novák). Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter (Contemporary Scholasticism. Vol. 2): 105–116.

Gaus C. (2008) Etiam realis scientia: Petrus Aureolis Konzeptualistische Transzendentalienlehre vor dem Hintergrund seiner Kritik am Formalitätenrealismus. Leiden: Brill.

Gelber H. G. (1974) Logic and the Trinity: A Clash of Values in Scholastic Thought, 1300–1335 (PhD dissertation. Madison. University of Wisconsin).

Henninger M. G. (1981) “Henry of Harclay on the Formal Distinction in the Trinity”. Franciscan Studies. Vol. 41: 250–335.

Ivanov V. L. (2010) “Intensivnaya velichina sovershenstva: Beskonechnost’ kak sushchestvennoe ponyatie v teologii i filosofii Ioanna Dunsa Skota” [The intensive magnitude of perfection: The Infinity as the essential concept in the theology and philosophy of John Duns Scotus, OFM]. Kosmos i Dusha. Vyp. 2. Ucheniya o prirode i myshlenii v Antichnosti, Srednie veka i Novoe vremya (stat’i i perevody) [Cosmos and Soul. Issue 2. Teachings on Nature and Mind in Antiquity, the Middle Ages and Modern time (articles and translations)] (ed. by A. V. Seryogin). Moscow: Progress–Tradition: 379–431. (in Russian).

Jordan M. J. (1984) Duns Scotus on the Formal Distinction (PhD dissertation. New Brunswick, New Jersey. Rutgers University).

Jordan M. J. (1985) “What’s New in Ockham’s Formal Distinction?” Franciscan Studies. Vol. 45: 97–110.

Kaufmann M. (1995) “Ockham’s Criticism of the Formal Distinction — A Mere ‘petitio principii’?” Via Scoti: Methodologia ad mentem Joannis Duns Scoti. Atti del Congresso Scotistico Internazionale Roma 9–11 marzo 1993 (a cura di L. Sileo). T. 1. Rome: Edizioni Antonianum: 337–347.

Kraml H. (1995) “Beobachtungen zum Ursprung der ‘distinctio formalis’” Via Scoti: Methodologia ad mentem Joannis Duns Scoti. Atti del Congresso Scotistico Internazionale Roma 9–11 marzo 1993 (a cura di L. Sileo). T. 1. Rome: Edizioni Antonianum: 305–318.

Martin Chr. J. (2000) “Logic for Distinctions: Peter of Navarre and the Scotistic Treatment of Impossible Hypotheses”. Medieval and Renaissance Logic in Spain: Acts of the 12th European Symposium on Medieval Logic and Semantics, held at the University of Navarre (Pamplona, 26–30 May 1997) (ed. by I. Angelelli, P. Perez-Ilzarbe). Hildesheim; Zürich; New York: Georg Olms Verlag (Philosophische Texte und Studien. Bd. 54): 439–463.

Mensching G. (1998) “Zur transzendentalphilosophischen Bedeutung der distinctio formalis bei Johannes Duns Scotus”. Was ist Philosophie im Mittelalter? Qu’est-ce que la philosophie au Moyen Age? What is Philosophy in the Middle Ages? Akten des X. Internationalen Kongresses für mittelalterliche Philosophie der Société Internationale pour l’Étude de la Philosophie Médiévale, 25. bis 30. August 1997 in Erfurt (hg. v. J. A. Aertsen, A. Speer). Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter (Miscellanea mediaevalia. Bd. 26): 543–549.

Muñoz C. P. D. (2015) “La distinctio formalis ex natura rei en la filosofía de Juan Duns Escoto como antecedente del planteo de la objetividad”. Alpha. No. 41: 23–39.

Noone T. B. (1993) “Alnwick on the Origin, Nature and Function of the Formal Distinction». Franciscan Studies. Vol. 53: 231–261.

Noone T. B. (2009) “Ascoli, Wylton, and Alnwick on Scotus’s Formal Distinction: Taxonomy, Refinement, and Interaction”. Philosophical Debates at Paris in the Early Fourteenth Century (ed. by S. F. Brown, T. Dewender, T. Kobusch). Leiden; Boston: Brill (Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters. Bd. 102): 127–149.

Noone T. B. (1999) “La distinction formelle dans l’école scotiste”. Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques. T. 83: 53–72.

Schmidt A. (2004) “Die Unvermeidlichkeit der distinctio formalis: Naturphilosophische Reflexionen zu einem zentralen Lehrstück des Johannes Duns Scotus”. Wissenschaft und Weisheit. Bd. 67: 96–118.

Smith G. R. (2013) The Problem of Divine Attributes from Thomas Aquinas to Duns Scotus (PhD dissertation. Notre Dame, Indiana. Notre Dame University).

Swindler J. K. (1988) “The Formal Distinction”. Southwest Philosophy Review. Vol. 4. No. 1: 71–77.

Thornton R. (2015) “From Theology through Metaphysics to Logic: John Duns Scotus’s Account of the Trinity without the ‘Formal Distinction’”. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly. Vol. 89. No. 4: 585–602.

Vdovina G. V. (2015) “O ponyatii notio i notsional’nykh imenakh v trinitarnom bogoslovii srednevekovogo Zapada” [On the concept of notio and notional names in the Trinitarian theology of the medieval West]. Mera veshchei. Chelovek v istorii evropeiskoi mysli [The Measure of Things. Man in the history of European thought] (ed. by G. V. Vdovina). Moscow: Akvilon: 168–190. (in Russian).

Wengert R. G. (1965) “The Development of the Doctrine of the Formal Distinction in the Lectura Prima of John Duns Scotus”. The Monist. No. 49: 571–587.

Wolter A. B. (1965) “The Formal Distinction”. John Duns Scotus 1265–1965 (ed. by J. K. Ryan, B. M. Bonansea). Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press (Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy. Vol. 3): 61–82 (Reprinted in: The Philosophical Theology of John Duns Scotus (ed. by M. Adams McCord). Ithaca, New York; London: Cornell University Press (Cornell Studies in the Philosophy of Religion), 1990: 27–41).

© Vitaliy Ivanov, 2016

Francisco Suárez, SJ. Metaphysical disputations. Disputation VI. On formal and universal unity. Sections I–III. Vol. 1. No. 1. 2016.

Publication Details

Metaphysical disputations. Disputation VI. On formal and universal unity. Sections I–III
Title in the language of publication: Метафизические рассуждения. Рассуждение VI. О формальном и универсальном единстве. Разделы I–III
Author: Francisco Suárez, SJ
Translated from Latin:
Galina Vdovina
Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Leading Research Fellow at the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Address: 12/1 Goncharnaya Str., Moscow 109240, Russia.
Comments:
Vitaliy Ivanov
Research Fellow at the Research and Education Center for Religion, Philosophy, and Culture Studies at the St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation.
Address: 67 Bolshaya Morskaia str., St. Petersburg 190000, Russia.
Issue:
P. 192–268.
Language: Russian
Document type: Translation and notes
HTML
 
   PDF
.

© Galina Vdovina, transl., 2016  © Vitaliy Ivanov, comment., 2016

Galina Vdovina, Vitaliy Ivanov Francisco Suárez. Metaphysical disputations. Disputation VI. Vol. 1. No. 1. 2016.On formal and universal unity. Introduction to the russian translation

Publication Details

Francisco Suárez. Metaphysical disputations. Disputation VI. On formal and universal unity. Introduction to the russian translation
Title in the language of publication:
К публикации русского перевода VI Рассуждения из «Метафизических рассуждений» Франсиско Суареса
Author:
Galina Vdovina
Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Leading Research Fellow at the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Address: 12/1 Goncharnaya Str., Moscow 109240, Russia.

Vitaliy Ivanov
Research Fellow at the Research and Education Center for Religion, Philosophy, and Culture Studies at the St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation.
Address: 67 Bolshaya Morskaia str., St. Petersburg 190000, Russia.
Issue:
P. 178–191.
Language: Russian
Document type: Research Article
HTML
 
   PDF

Abstract

The article consists of two parts. The main part presents a translation into Russian of the “Disputation VI” from Francisco Suárez’ “Metaphysical Disputations”; the supplementary part contains a brief introductive article. The article provides some biographical information about Suárez (1548–1617), offers a brief description of his philosophical heritage and situates his place in the scholastic philosophical landscape of his time. There then follows a brief discussion of the structure of the “Metaphysical Disputations” (Disputationes Metaphysicae) and its significance in the history of scholastic philosophical tradition. The “Metaphysical Disputations” is a systematically arranged treatise comprising 54 disputations concerning principal metaphysical questions; it was published in two volumes in Salamanca in 1597. This work by Suarez is the most significant treatise in metaphysics in the entire scholastic philosophy of the first half of the XVII c. The “Metaphysical Disputations” have defined scholastic metaphysical thought for a century ahead and constituted a model work, referred to by every scholar studying metaphysical problems even if they belonged to a rival scholastic tradition. Publishing the Russian translation of the sixth disputation continues the work on translating the “Metaphysical Disputations” which started ten years ago, in 2007 with editing the translation of the first five Disputations. In the sixth Disputation Suarez analyzes the formal or essential unity of being as well as universal unity. It is in the sixth Disputation that issues related to the well-known debate on universals are discussed — here Suarez presents and considers in detail the principal scholastic viewpoints regarding this matter. Due to the size of the Disputation, its text is published in parts in several consecutive issues of the journal. The translation by G. V. Vdovina is accompanied by a vast commentary by V. L. Ivanov.

Keywords

scholastic metaphysics of the Early Modern time, Suárez, «Metaphysical disputations», problem of universals, formal unity of being, universal unity of being, universal nature.

References 

Works by ancient and scholastic authors

Antonius Andreae OFM (1523) Antonii Andree Quaestiones subtilissimae super XII libros Metaphysicae Aristotelis. Venetiis: mandato et impensis Octaviani Scoti.

Aureoli (1605) Petri Aureoli OFM Commentariorum in Secundum, Tertium, Quartum Sententiarum Libros, Pars Secunda & Quodlibeta. Roma: Ex Typographia Aloysij Zannetti.

Aureoli (2013) Petrus Aureoli, OFM. «De unitate conceptus entis. Pars I. Reportatio Parisiensis in I Sententiarum, dist. 2, pars 1, q. 1–3» (tr., cooment. by V. L. Ivanov). EINAI: Problemy filosofii i teologii. T. 2. № 1/2 [EINAI: The Problems of Philosophy and Theology. Vol. 2. No. 1/2]: 232–295. (in Russian).

Averroes (1562) “Aristotelis Stagiritae Metaphysicorum libri XIIII cum Averrois Cordubensis in eosdem commentariis”. Aristotelis Opera cum Averrois Commentariis. Venetiis: apud Junctas. Vol. VIII: 1r–340r.

Averroes (1953) Averrois Cordubensis Commentarium magnum in Aristotelis De anima libros (ed. F. Stuart Crawford). Corpus Commentariorum Averrois in Aristotelem: Versio Latina. Vol. VI. Pars 1. Cambridge, MA: The Medieval Academy of America (Medieval Academy Books. No. 59).

Avicenna (1508) “Avicennae Logica”. Avicennae Opera. Venetiis: mandato et impensis heredum Octaviani Scoti: 1–12.

Avicenna (1977–1980) Avicenna latinus. Liber de philosophia prima sive scientia divina (IX) (ed. S. Van Riet). 2 Vols (1977, 1980). Louvain: Peeters; Leiden: Brill.

Bassolis OFM (1517) Ioannis de Bassolis OFM Opera in IV Sententiarum libros Aurea. Parisiis: Typis Fr. Regnault et Io. Frellon.

Biel (1973) Gabrielis Biel Collectorium circa IV libros Sententiarum. Prologus et Liber I (ed. W. Werbeck, U. Hofmann). Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

Boethius (1966) Porphyrii Isagoge, Translatio Boethii. Aristoteles Latinus I.6. Categoriarum Supplementa (ed. L. Minio-Paluello, B. G. Dod). Bruges; Paris: Desclée De Brouwer.

Bonetus OFM (1505) “Nicolai Boneti OFM Metaphysica”. Nicolai Boneti IV volumina. Venetiis: mandato et impensis heredum Octaviani Scoti: 1–45.

Caietanus OP (1907) Thomae de Vio Caietani OP Commentarium super Opusculum De ente et essentia Thomae Aquinatis. Romae: Ex Pontificia Officina Typographica.

Capreolus OP (1588) Ioannis Capreoli OP In III libro Sententiarum Amplissimae Quaestiones. Venetiis: Apud heredem Hieronymi Scoti.

Duns Scotus OFM (1639) “Ioannis Duns Scoti OFM Reportata Parisiensia libri tres”. Ioannis Duns Scoti Opera omnia (editio Wadding). Tomus XI. Pars I. Lugduni: Durand.

Duns Scotus OFM (1950–2013) “Ioannis Duns Scoti OFM Ordinatio I–IV”. Ioannis Duns Scoti Opera omnia. Vol. I–XIV. Studio et cura Commissionis Scotisticae ad fidem codicum edita, praeside Carolo Balić. Civitas Vaticana: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis.

Duns Scotus OFM (1960–2004) “Ioannis Duns Scoti OFM Lectura I–III”. Ioannis Duns Scoti Opera omnia. Vol. XVI–XXI. Studio et cura Commissionis Scotisticae ad fidem codicum edita, praeside Carolo Balić. Civitas Vaticana: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis.

Duns Scotus OFM (1997a) “Ioannis Duns Scoti Quaestiones super libros Metaphysicorum Aristotelis. Libri I–V” (ed. G. Etzkorn, R. Andrews, G. Gál, R. Green, F. Kelly, G. Marcil, T. Noone, R. Wood). B. Ioannis Duns Scoti OFM Opera Philosophica. Vol. III. St. Bonaventure, New York: The Franciscan Institute.

Duns Scotus OFM (1997b) “Ioannis Duns Scoti Quaestiones super libros Metaphysicorum Aristotelis. Libri VI–IX” (ed. G. Etzkorn, R. Andrews, G. Gál, R. Green, F. Kelly, G. Marcil, T. Noone, R. Wood). B. Ioannis Duns Scoti OFM Opera Philosophica. Vol. IV. St. Bonaventure, New York: The Franciscan Institute.

Fonseca SJ (1589) Petri Fonsecae SJ Commentariorum in Libros Metaphysicorum Aristotelis Stagiritae. Tomus II. Continet hic tomus Quinti libri explicationem. Romae: Ex Officina Iacobi Tornerii.

Fonseca SJ (1604) Petri Fonsecae SJ Commentariorum in Metaphysicorum Aristotelis Stagiritae Libros. Tomus III. Continet hic tomus VI. VII. VIII. et IX. Lib. Explicationem. Coloniae: Impensis Lazari Zetzneri.

Franciscus de Mayronis OFM (1520) “Francisci de Mayronis OFM Scriptum in II librum Sententiarum”. Francisci de Mayronis OFM Scripta in IV libros Sententiarum. Venetiis: mandato et impensis Octaviani Scoti: 137 – 160.

Hurtado de Mendoza SJ (1624) Petri Hurtado de Mendoza SJ Universa philosophia. Lugduni: Sumpt. Ludovici Prost.

Iavellus OP (1568) “Chrysostomi Iavelli OP Quaestiones super XII Metaphysices Aristotelis libros”. Chrysostomi Iavelli OP Totius rationalis, naturalis, divinae ac moralis philosophiae Compendium. Tomus I. Lugduni: Apud haeredes Iacobi Iunctae: 709–911.

Ioannes de Ianduno (1560) Ioannis de Ianduno Acutissimae Quaestiones in XII libros Metaphysicae Aristotelis. Venetiis: Apud Hieronymum Scottum.

Ioannes Monlorius (1593) “Ioannis Baptistae Monlorii De Universis copiosa Disputatio”. Ioannis Baptistae Monlorii Perfectissima in Aristotelis Analyticorum Priorum libros duos Paraphrasis et scholia. Francofurti: In Officina Typographica Ioannis Wecheli: 413–489.

Izquierdo SJ (1659) Sebastiani Izquierdo SJ Pharus scientiarum. Lugduni: Sumptibus Claudii Bourgeat et Mich. Lietard.

Mastri OFMConv (1708) “Bartholomaei Mastri de Meldula OFMConv Disputationes ad mentem Scoti in XII Aristotelis Stagiritae Libros Metaphysicorum, Pars Posterior”. Bartholomaei Mastri de Meldula OFMConv Cursus Philosophicus ad mentem Doctoris Subtilis Scoti. Tomus Quintus. Venetiis: Apud Nicolaum Pezzana.

Ockham OFM (1970) “Guillelmi de Ockham OFM Scriptum in librum primum Sententiarum. Ordinatio. Dist. 2–3”. Guillelmi de Ockham OFM Opera philosophica et Theologica. Opera theologica. Vol. 2 (ed. St. Brown). St. Bonaventure, New York: The Franciscan Institute.

Ockham OFM (1980) “Guillelmi de Ockham OFM Quodlibeta septem”. Guillelmi de Ockham OFM Opera philosophica et Theologica. Opera theologica. Vol. 9 (ed. J. C. Wey). St. Bonaventure, New York: The Franciscan Institute.

Paulus Venetus OESA (1494) Pauli Veneti OESA Expositio super Universalia Porphyrii et Artem Veterem Aristotelis. Venetiis: mandato et impensis Octaviani Scoti.

Porphyrius (1887) Porphyrii Isagoge et In Aristotelis Categorias Commentarium (ed. A. Busse). Berolini: Typis et impensis Georgii Reimer (Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca. Vol. IV. Pars 1).

Pseudo-Thomas Aquinas (1927) “Ignoti auctoris Opusculum de natura generis”. S. Thomae Aquinatis Opuscula Omnia (ed. P. Mandonnet). Vol. V. Paris: Sumptibus P. Lethielleux: 221–264.

Ptolomaeus Lucensis OP (1979) “Ptolomaei Lucensis OP Continuatio S. Thomae De regno ad regem Cypri”. Thomas Aquinas OP. Opera omnia (editio Leonina). Tomus XLII. Roma: Editori di San Tommaso: 417–471.

Sirectus OFM (1588) “Tractatus formalitatum moderniorum de mente Doctoris Subtilis Scoti per Excell. Magistrum Antonium Sirecti collectarum”. Quinque illustrium auctorum formalitatum libelli. Venetiis: Apud Franciscum de Franciscis Senensem: 1–92.

Soncinas OP (1579) Pauli Soncinatis OP Quaestiones Metaphysicales acutissimae. Lugduni: Apud Carolum Pesnot.

Soto OP (1587) Dominici Soto OP In Porphyrii Isagogen, Aristotelis Categorias, librosque de Demonstratione, Absolutissima Commentaria. Venetiis: Ex Officina Dominici Guerraei et Io. Baptistae, fratrum.

Steuchus (1540) Augustini Steuchi Eugubini De perenni philosophia libri X. Lugduni: apud Seb. Gryphium.

Suárez SJ (1597) Metaphysicarum disputationum, in quibus et universa naturalis theologia ordinatè traditur, & quaestiones omnes ad duodecim Aristotelis libros pertinentes accuratè disputantur. Tomus Prior. Autore R. P. Francisco Suarez è Societate JESU. Salmanticae: Apud Ioannem et Andream Renaut, fratres.

Suárez SJ (1960–1966) Francisco Suárez SJ Disputationes MetaphysicaeDisputaciones metafísicas. Vol. I–VII (ed., tr. S. Rábade Romeo, S. Caballero Sánchez, A. Puigcerver Zanón). Madrid: Gredos.

Suárez (2007) Franciscus Suarez (S.J.). Disputationes Metaphysicae. Vol. I. Disputationes 1–5 (tr. by G. V. Vdovina). Moscow: Institut filosofii, teologii i istorii sv. Fomy. (in Russian).

Thomas Aquinas OP (1889) “Sancti Thomae de Aquino OP Summae Theologiae Pars I, a quaestione L ad quaestionem CXIX”. Thomas Aquinas OP. Opera omnia (editio Leonina). Tomus V. Romae: Ex Typographia Polyglotta S. C. de Propaganda Fide.

Thomas Aquinas OP (1891) “Sancti Thomae de Aquino OP Summae Theologiae Prima Secundae, a quaestione I ad quaestionem LXX”. Thomas Aquinas OP. Opera omnia (editio Leonina). Tomus VI. Romae: Ex Typographia Polyglotta S. C. de Propaganda Fide.

Thomas Aquinas OP (1950) S. Thomae Aquinatis In duodecim libros Metaphysicorum Aristotelis exposition (ed. M. R. Cathala, R. M. Spiazzi). Taurini; Romae: Marietti.

Thomas Aquinas OP (1965) S. Thomae Aquinatis OP Quaestiones disputatae. T. 2: Quaestiones disputatae de potential (ed. P. M. Pession). Taurini; Romae: Marietti: 1276.

Thomas Aquinas OP (1970) “Sancti Thomae de Aquino OP Quaestiones disputatae de veritate. Q. 1–7”. Thomas Aquinas OP. Opera omnia (editio Leonina). Tomus XXII. Fasc. 1.2. Romae: Editori di San Tommaso.

Thomas Aquinas OP (1976) “Sancti Thomae de Aquino OP De ente et essentia”. Thomas Aquinas OP. Opera omnia (editio Leonina). Tomus XLIII. Romae: Editori di San Tommaso: 369381.

Thomas Aquinas (1996) “Sancti Thomae de Aquino, OP. Quaestiones de quolibet” (ed. R.-A. Gauthier). Thomas Aquinas, OP. Opera omnia (editio Leonina). Tomus XXV. Romae; Parisii: Éditions du Cerf. Vol. 1: Préface, Quaestiones disputatae Parisius annis 1256–1259 (Quodlibet VII, VIII, IX, X, XI). Vol. 2: Quaestiones disputatae Parisius annis 1269–1272 (Quodlibet I, II, III, VI, IV, V, XII), Indices.

Trombeta OFM (1504) Antonii Trombetae OFM Quaestiones Metaphysicales seu Opus in Metaphysicam Aristotelis Padue in thomistas discussum. Venetiis: ed. Antonius Trombeta.

Studies and reference literature

Åkerlund E. (2009) “Suárez on Forms, Universals and Understanding”. Studia Neoaristotelica. A Journal of Analytical Scholasticism. Vol. 6. Issue 2: 159–182.

Bach O., Brieskorn N., Stiening G. (hg.) (2013) “Auctoritas omnium legum: Francisco Suárez’ “De legibuszwischen Theologie, Philosophie und Jurisprudenz. Stuttgart – Bad Cannstatt: Friedrich Frommann Verlag (Günter Holzboog).

Bäck A. (1996) “The Triplex Status Naturae and its Justification”. Studies in the History of Logic (ed. by I. Angelelli, M. Cerrezo). Berlin; New York: De Gruyter: 133–154.

Bäck A. (2013) “Avicenna’s Theory of Supposition”. Vivarium. Vol. 51. Issue 1–4: 81–115.

Darge R. (2004) Suárez transzendentale Seinsauslegung und die Metaphysiktradition. Leiden: Brill.

Doyle J. P. (1984) “Prolegomena to a Study of Extrinsic Denomination in the Work of Francis Suarez, S.J.”. Vivarium. Vol. 22. Issue 2: 121–160.

García C., José A. (ed.) (2014) Los fundamentos antropológicos de la ley en Suárez. Pamplona: Eunsa (Colección de Pensamiento Medieval y Renacentista. Vol. 145).

Heider D. (2013) “Abstraction, Intentionality, and Moderate Realism: The Ontology and Epistemology of Universals in Francisco Suárez and John Poinsot”. Hircocervi, Goat-Stags, and Other Metaphysical Oddities: Essays in Honour of John Doyle (ed. by V. M. Salas). Milwaukee: Marquette University Press: 177–211.

Heider D. (2014) Universals in Second Scholasticism: A Comparative Study with Focus on the Theories of Francisco Suárez S.J. (1548–1617), Joao Poinsot O.P. (1589–1644), and Bartolomeo Mastri da Meldola O.F.M. Conv. (1602–1673), Bonaventura Belluto O.F.M. Conv. (1600–1676). New York: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Hill B., Lagerlund H. (eds.) (2012) The Philosophy of Francisco Suárez. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ivanov V. L. (2005) “O sushchnostnykh chertakh metafiziki kak nauki v traktate ob ustanovlenii metafiziki Frantsisko Suaresa” [On the essential strains of the science of metaphysics in the treatise on the institution of metaphysics by Francisco Suárez]. Ontologiya i Metafizika: Opyt istoriko-filosofskogo issledovaniya [Ontology and Metaphysics: The experience of research in the History of philosophy] (ed. by E. V. Barbashina). Novosibirsk: NGU – RND: 34–47. (in Russian).

Ivanov V. L. (2015) “Philosophia Nov-Antiqua. ‘Drevneishaya istina’ novoi filosofii i vozmozhnost’ novizny v shkol’nom znanii XVII veka” [Philosophia Nov-antiqua: The “most ancient truth” of the Modern philosophy and the possibility of the New in the knowledge of the School in the XVIIth century]. Mera veshchei. Chelovek v istorii evropeiskoi mysli [The Measure of Things. Man in the history of European thought] (ed. by G. V. Vdovina). Moscow: Akvilon: 168–190. (in Russian).

Knebel S. K. (1989) In genere latent aequivocationes. Zur Tradition der Universalienkritik aus dem Geist der Dihärese. Hildesheim; Zürich; New York: Olms (Philosophische Texte und Studien. Bd. 20).

Knebel S. K. (1991) “Scientia Media. Ein diskursarchäologischer Leitfaden durch das 17. Jahrhundert”. Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte (hg. v. H.-G. Gadamer u. a.). Bd. 34: 262–294.

Knebel S. K. (1998) “The Early Modern Rollback of Merely Extrinsic Denomination”. Meeting of the Minds. The Relations between Medieval and Classical Modern European Philosophy (ed. by S. F. Brown). Turnhout: Brepols: 317–331.

Knebel S. K. (2007) “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Denomination. The 14th Century Connection of 17th Century Aristotelianism”. Der Aristotelismus in der Frühen Neuzeit — Kontinuität oder Wiederaneignung (hg. v. G. Frank, A. Speer). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz: 97–115.

Menn S. (1997) “Suárez, Nominalism and Modes”. Hispanic Philosophy in the Age of Discovery (ed. by K. White). Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press: 226–256.

Novák L. (ed.) (2014) Suárez’s Metaphysics in Its Historical and Systematic Context. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Salas V., Fastiggi R. (eds.) (2015) A Companion to Francisco Suárez. Leiden: Brill, 2015 (Brill’s Companions to the Christian Tradition. Vol. 53).

Schmutz J. (2003) La querelle des possibles. Recherches philosophiques et textuelles sur la métaphysique jésuite, 1540–1767 (Thèse de Doctorat. Ecole pratique des hautes etudes. Paris: Université libre de Bruxelles). Tome I.

Schmutz J. (2009) “Les innovations conceptuelles de la métaphysique espagnole post-suarérzienne — les status rerum selon Antonio Pérez et Sebastián Izquierdo”. Quaestio. Annuario di storia della metafisica. Bd. 9. Turnhout: Brepols: 61–99.

Schmutz J. (2013) “Science divine et métaphysique chez Francisco Suárez”. EINAI: Problemy filosofii i teologii. T. 2. № 1/2 [EINAI: The Problems of Philosophy and Theology. Vol. 2. No. 1/2]: 296–341. (in Russian).

Schwartz D. (ed.) (2012) Interpreting Suárez: Critical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Slovar’ russkogo yazyka (1961) Slovar’ russkogo yazyka: v 4 t. T. 4. [Russian Language Dictionary in 4 vol. Vol. 4] (The Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Russian Language Institute, ed. by A. P. Evgenieva). Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo inostrannykh i natsional’nykh slovarei. (in Russian).

South J. B. (2002) “Singular and Universal in Suarez’s Account of Cognition”. Review of Metaphysics. Vol. 55. No. 4: 785–823.

Vdovina G. V. (2007) “Sushchee i real’nost’ v metafizike Fransisko Suaresa” [Being and Reality in Francisco Suárez’ Metaphysics]. Franciscus Suarez (S.J.). Disputationes Metaphysicae. Vol. I. Disputationes 1–5 (tr. by G. V. Vdovina). Moscow: Institut filosofii, teologii i istorii sv. Fomy: 87–217. (in Russian).

.

© Galina Vdovina, 2016  © Vitaliy Ivanov, 2016

(Русский) Франсиско Суарес, SJ. Метафизические рассуждения. Рассуждение VI. О формальном и универсальном единстве. Раздел III.

Sorry, this entry is only available in Russian.

(Русский) Галина Вдовина, Виталий Иванов. К публикации русского перевода VI Рассуждения из «Метафизических рассуждений» Франсиско Суареса.

Sorry, this entry is only available in Russian.

(Русский) Франсиско Суарес, SJ. Метафизические рассуждения. Рассуждение VI. О формальном и универсальном единстве. Разделы IV–V.

Sorry, this entry is only available in Russian.