G. V. F. Hegel. Faith and knowledge or the Reflective Philosophy of Subjectivity in the complete range of its forms as Kantian, Jacobian, and Fichtean Philosophy (part two). Vol. 1. No. 2. 2016

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Anton Ivanenko Subjectivism of G. F. Jacobi in “Faith and knowledge” of G. W. F. Hegel Vol. 1. No. 2. 2016

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Subjectivism of G. F. Jacobi in “Faith and knowledge” of G. W. F. Hegel
Title in the language of publication:
Субъективизм Ф. Г. Якоби в «Вере и знании» Г. В. Ф. Гегеля
Author:
Anton Ivanenko
PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Institute of Philosophy of the Saint Petersburg State University.
Address: 7/9 Universitetskaya emb., St. Petersburg 199034, Russia.
Issue:
P. 129–135.
Language: Russian
Document type: Research Article (translation)
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Abstract

The article is written as an introduction to the first Russian translation of the third part of “Faith and Knowledge or the Reflective Philosophy of Subjectivity in the complete range of its forms as Kantian, Jacobian, and Fichtean Philosophy” (“Glauben und Wissen oder die Reflexionsphilosophie der Subjektivität in der Vollständigkeit ihrer Formen als Kantische, Jacobische und Fichtesche Philosophie”) by G. W. F. Hegel first published in the Critical Journal of Philosophy (Kritisches Journal der Philosophie) in 1802. It is emphasised that the philosophical work by Jacobi, although little known in Russia, was highly esteemed by his contemporaries, German idealists, were they his supporters or opponents. For Hegel, Jacobi was one of the most referred to. He called the principle of Jacobi’s philosophy “acknowledgment of the freedom of the human spirit”. For Jacobi, the fundamental opposition was that between direct and indirect in knowledge. The source of the knowledge — about both natural things and supernatural, absolute, unconditioned, and having no cause God — is the direct apperception. It is this knowledge that was considered as the first one by Jacobi, who identified it with the faith, whereas the knowledge of the mechanism of the nature, as intermediated with rational understanding, was always secondary. However, the corresponding notion of faith and reason the faith is depending on the contingent subjective feeling, whereas the role of the reason in the second kind of knowledge is denied by Jacobi in such an extent that allows to Hegel concluding that, from Jacobi’s thought, necessary consequences are moral eudemonism and atomisation of the religious and social life. The author of the present paper concludes that the philosophical ideas by Jacobi are both positively and negatively actual for the present-day Russia, with its high level of development of the culture of subjectivity.

Keywords

Hegel, Jacobi, reflexive philosophy, immediacy and mediation, faith and knowledge, reason, empirical science, culture of subjectivity.

References 

Chernov S. A., Shevchenko I. A. (2010) Fridrikh Yakobi: vera, chuvstvo, razum [Friedrich Jacobi: faith, feeling, mind]. Moscow: Progress–Traditsiya. (in Russian).

Hamann J. G., Jacobi F. H. Filosofiya chuvstva i very [Philosophy of Feeling and Faith] (ed., tr., intr., suppl., comment., notes by S. V. Volzhin). St. Petersburg: PNPI RAS im. B. P. Konstantinova. (in Russian).

Hegel G. V. F. (1974) Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse. Erster Teil. Die Wissenschaft der Logik. Moscow: Mysl’ (Filosofskoe nasledie. T. 63 [Philosophical Heritage. Vol. 63]). (in Russian).

Hegel G. V. F. (1994) Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie. V 3-kh kn. Kn. 3 [In 3 vol. Vol. 3]. St. Petersburg: Nauka (Slovo o sushchem [Word on the Being]). (in Russian).

Hegel G. V. F. (2016) “Glauben und Wissen oder die Reflexionsphilosophie der Subjektivität in der Vollständigkeit ihrer Formen als Kantische, Jacobische und Fichtesche Philosophie” (part one). ESSE: Filosofskie i teologicheskie issledovaniya. T. 1. № 1 [ESSE: Studies in philosophy and theology. Vol. 1. No. 1]: 98–132. (in Russian).

Ivanenko A. A. (2016) “Rabota G. V. F. Gegelya ‘Vera i znanie’ mezhdu filosofiei tozhdestva i ‘Fenomenologiei dukha’” [Article Hegel’s “Faith and knowledge” between philosophy of identity and the “Phenomenology of spirit”]. ESSE: Filosofskie i teologicheskie issledovaniya. T. 1. № 1 [ESSE: Studies in philosophy and theology. Vol. 1. No. 1]: 87–97. (in Russian).

Jacobi F. H. (1914) “Über den transzendentalen Idealismus”. Novye idei v filosofii. Sb.12. K istorii teorii poznaniya I [New Ideas in Philosophy. Issue 12: To the History of the Theory of Knowledge, I]. St. Petersburg: Obrazovanie: 1–14. (in Russian).

Schleiermacher F. (1994) “Über die Religion. Reden an die Gebildeten unter ihren Verächtern”. Schleiermacher F. Über die Religion. Reden an die Gebildeten unter ihren Verächtern. Monologen. St. Petersburg: Aleteiya (Pamyatniki religiozno-filosofskoi mysli Novogo vremeni [Monuments of religious and philosophical thought of Modernity]): 43–274. (in Russian).

© Anton Ivanenko, 2016

G. V. F. Hegel. Faith and knowledge or the Reflective Philosophy of Subjectivity in the complete range of its forms as Kantian, Jacobian, and Fichtean Philosophy (part one). Vol. 1. No. 2. 2016

Continue reading

Anton Ivanenko. Article Hegel’s “Faith and knowledge” between philosophy of identity and the “Phenomenology of spirit”. Vol. 1. No. 1. 2016

Publication Details

Article Hegel’s “Faith and knowledge” between philosophy of identity and the “Phenomenology of spirit”
Title in the language of publication: Работа Г. В. Ф. Гегеля «Вера и знание» между философией тождества и «Феноменологией духа»
Author:
Anton Ivanenko
PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Institute of Philosophy of the Saint Petersburg State University.
Address: 7/9 Universitetskaya emb., St. Petersburg 199034, Russia.
Issue:
P. 87–97.
Language: Russian
Document type: Research Article
 
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Abstract

The article is written as an introduction to the first Russian translation of the first two parts of “Faith and knowledge or the Reflective Philosophy of Subjectivity in the complete range of its forms as Kantian, Jacobian, and Fichtean Philosophy” (“Glauben und Wissen oder die Reflexionsphilosophie der Subjektivität in der Vollständigkeit ihrer Formen als Kantische, Jacobische und Fichtesche Philosophie”) by G. W. F. Hegel (1802). It was published as one of the issues of the Critical Journal of Philosophy (Kritisches Journal der Philosophie). The pre-history and history of the publication of this journal by Schelling and Hegel is described. Primarily on the two sources, this work by Hegel and his letter to W. F. Hufnagel from December 30, 1801, the program of the journal is analysed. The program consisted in critics of other contemporaneous philosophical projects in order to pave the way for such philosophy that would be corresponding to the very “idea” of philosophy. The publications in the journal were anonymous and often written by Hegel and Schelling together. Therefore, the present article considers the problems of authorship. It is demonstrated that the witnesses of both Hegel and Schelling prove that the article “Faith and Reason” is penned by Hegel. Then, the article deals with methodological and logical problems in Schelling’s philosophy identity, namely, his idea that the object of philosophy to be reached is such point, where the being could be thought as the absolute identity of the mind, i. e. the process of self-definition of the mind within that what is not identical to it and, therefore, not existing in reality. Schelling excluded the reason and reflexive indirect thinking from the mind, and so, left without resolution the problem of self-definition of the identity remaining identical. Therefore, his recourse to the “intellectual contemplation” as the condition of thinking on the being from the high of the absolute identity — which would guarantee the unity of the direct and the indirect in knowledge — is not supported with a concrete analysis of the activity of the mind as knowing itself in the products of its own activity. It is demonstrated that the critical study by Hegel of the philosophical doctrines of Kant, Jacobi, and Fichte served to him to resolving the above problems. Moreover, in the article are provided references to the main points of Hegel’s evaluation of Kant’s transcendental philosophy, as well as a discussion of the language of “Faith and Reason”, which not always follows grammatical and literature norms and requires some special efforts by the translator into Russian.

Keywords

Hegel, German idealism, philosophical criticism, identity, philosophy of identity, transcendentalism, critical philosophy, mind.

References 

Fichte I. G. (1993) “Die Bestimmung des Menschen”. Fichte I. G. Sochineniya v dvukh tomakh. T. 2 [Works in two volumes. Vol. 2]. St. Petersburg: Mifril: 65–224. (in Russian).

Hegel G. W. F. (1970) “Hegels Eigenshändiger Lebenslauf”. Hegel G. W. F. Werke in 20 Bänden. Bd. 2. Jenaer Schriften 1801–1807. Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag: 582–583.

Hegel G. W. F. (1972) “Über das Wesen der philosophischen Kritik überhaupt und ihr Verhältnis zum gegenwärtigen Zustand der Philosophie insbesondere”. Hegel G. W. F. Raboty raznykh let. V 2 t. T. 1 [Miscellaneous Works in 2 vol. Vol. 1]. Moscow: Mysl’ (Filosofskoe nasledie. T. 39 [Philosophical Heritage. Vol. 39]): 267–284. (in Russian).

Hegel G. W. F. (1973) “Pis’ma” [The Letters]. Hegel G. W. F. Raboty raznykh let. V 2 t. T. 2 [Miscellaneous Works in 2 vol. Vol. 2]. Moscow: Mysl’ (Filosofskoe nasledie. T. 40 [Philosophical Heritage. Vol. 40]): 211–528. (in Russian).

Plitt G. L., hg. (1869) Aus Schellings Leben. In Briefen. Bd. 1. 1775–1803. Leipzig: Hirzel.

Schelling F. W. J. (2009) “Darstellung meines Systems der Philosophie”. Schelling F. W. J. Historisch-kritische Ausgabe. Werke. Bd. 10. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog: 107–211.

© Anton Ivanenko, 2016

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Sorry, this entry is only available in Russian.